About Turkey


About Turkey

Official name: Republic of Turkey

Location: Turkey is located in Southeastern Europe and Southwestern Asia. European (or Balkan) Turkey is relatively small compared to the Asian part, the Anatolian Plateau, which is a large peninsula.

Area: 780,580 sq. km (301,382 square miles) with a total coastline of 8,430 km (5,238 miles)

Population: 80,810,525 (December 2017 est.)    

Capital: Ankara (5.445 million inhabitants)

Landscape: The Asian part of the country – Anatolia is a high hilly plateau with narrow coastal plains. Its northern part is covered by the Pontic and Köroğlu mountain ranges, the southern by Taurus Mountains. Eastern Turkey has a more mountainous landscape. The rivers EuphratesTigris and Aras spring there. Anatolia is surrounded by the Black Sea to the north, Aegean sea to the West and the Mediterranean sea to the south. The European part is covered by parts of Eastern Thrace plane and Strandzha mountain. It is separated by Anatolia (Asia Minor) by the Black Sea, Bosphorus, Marmara, Dardanelles and Aegean sea. The biggest town in Turkey is Istanbul, which steps on both continents.

State Government: Turkey is a republican parliamentary democracy. Turkey is the only country with a Muslim majority population (99.8%) that operates under a secular constitution and a democratic government.

President: Recep Erdoğan

Official Language: Turkish 

Religions: Islam is the largest religion of Turkey, with 99.8 % of the population being registered as Muslim (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (mostly Christians and Jews).

Time Difference:

Turkey is in the Eastern European Time Zone. Eastern European Standard Time (EET) is 2 hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT+2). Like most states in Europe, Summer (Daylight-Saving) Time is observed in Turkey, where the time is shifted forward by 1 hour; 3 hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT+3).

After the Summer months, the time in Turkey is shifted back by 1 hour to Eastern European Time (EET) or (GMT+2)

Weather: Aegean and Mediterranean coastal areas enjoy the typical Mediterranean climate. There is hardly a drop of rain during the sunny and hot summer (May to October). The water temperature in the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas is warm and fluctuates between 23° and 28°C from north to south. The region around the Sea of Marmara, including Istanbul, has a transitional climate between Oceanic climate and semi-Mediterranean climate. The water temperature in the Sea of Marmara is also colder than the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas reaching only between 20° and 24°C during the summer (June, July and August). The Black Sea region has an oceanic climate (thanks to the protective shield effect of Caucasus mountains) with the greatest amount of precipitation throughout the year.

Most of the coastal areas have a high level of relative humidity during most of the year which makes hot weather feel hotter and cold weather feel colder than it actually is.

Country dialling code: +90

Measure units: degree Celsius (ºC), meter (m.), litre (l.).


With such a large landmass, Turkey enjoys a variety of climates, earning the country the nickname ‘the land of four seasons’.

In Istanbul and around the sea of Marmara the climate is moderate. The average temperature in winter is 4°C and in summer – 27°C (39 and 80 degrees Fahrenheit). In Western Turkey there is a mild Mediterranean climate with average temperatures of 9°C in winter and 29°C in summer. The climate of the Anatolian Plateau is a steppe climate (there is a great temperature difference between day and night). Rainfall is low but in winter there is more snow. The average temperature is 23°C in summer and -2 in winter. The climate in the Black Sea area is wet, warm and humid (summer 23, winter 7). In Eastern and South-Eastern Anatolia there is a long hard winter and sometimes the snow falls from November until the end of April (the average temperature in winter is -13 and in summer 17°C).


The mains voltage for electricity is 220V and 50Hz.

Central European type wall socket (two-pin plugs) is standard in Turkey

Business hours

Government Offices8.30 to 12.30, 13.30 to 17.30 (Closed Saturday and Sunday)
Banks9.00 to 12.30, 13.30 to 17.00 (Closed Saturday and Sunday)
Shops9.30 to 19.00 (closed on Sunday)
Covered Bazaar8.00 to 19.00 (closed on Sunday)
Shopping Malls10.00 to 22.00 (everyday


There is no guarantee that any English will be spoken on any of these emergency and helpline telephone numbers. Calls to the following emergency numbers are free of charge; the lines are available 24 hours a day.   

Health Emergency:110

Police: 155
Fire: 110
Registration for International calls: 115
Emergency: 112Tourism Police: (0212) 527 45 03
Tourism Info (all over Turkey): 170